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M Phil in Political Science & International Relations from Delhi University. Currently teaching Political Science & International Relations at Vajiram and Ravi, Delhi. My successful students include Raghvendra Singh (AIR 12, 2012), Namrata Gandhi(AIR 42, 2012), Mullai Muhilan (AIR 46, 2012), Tapasya Raghav (AIR 78, 2012), Vikas Kundal (AIR 79, 2012), Anshul Gupta (AIR 110, 2012), Gagandeep Singh(AIR 25, 2011), Gince K Mattam (AIR 73, 2010), Aditi Singh(AIR 12, 2008), Deepak Rawat(AIR 12, 2006) and many others.

Monday, December 8, 2014

Structure of Answers of the TEST SERIES - TEST 5: Paper 1 (COMPREHENSIVE)


2                (a)             What is Normative Political Theory? Give different strands of normative political theory.

Ans:         NPT is concerned with articulating norms rather than describing facts with theoretical tests rather than empirical studies.

·         NPT is sometimes viewed as a branch of moral philosophy concerned with foundational or moral questions that affect fundamental life.

·         NPT follows certain methods to conduct its investigations like:

Ø  It is concerned with the internal constituency of moral arguments.

Ø  It draws on other social sciences to check the correctness of empirical arguments.

Ø  Normative theorists measures the conclusions of their arguments against their own moral institutions.

Different strands of NPT are:

1.    Utilitarianism – Butham’s felicific calculate is applied to laws and stats. Greatest happiness of greatest number. In reality, utilitarian logic is combined with another logic (individuals are treated as means).

2.    Liberalism – Kantian theory states that individual should be treated as ends.  Rights of individuals are more imported than the goods of the society.

3.    Communitarianism  - Liberal individual self cannot be separated from the community.  The liberal self is an unencumbered self whereas communitarians believe that individual is a situated self.  Values are contextually determined by the social obligations and shared values that owe to each  other and the society.

2          (b)       How the nation of freedom has been conceptualized in political theory?

Ans:   Different schools of thought conceptualize different nations of freedom.

Ø  For positive liberals, freedom comes out of the conditions which help in attaining one’s self realization.

Ø  For negative liberals, freedom is the absence of external interference.

Ø  For Marxists, freedom is in the stage of communism where everyone’s needs are fulfilled.

Ø  For Locke, liberty lies in the rights which are amicable to any individual.

Ø  For feminists, freedom lies in emancipation from patriarchal society, having equal rights like men, equal for work.

Ø  The concept of freedom thus has been conceptualized in different ways in political theory.

3          (a)       What is the fundamental difference between dharma and religion? Describe the role of Dharma in social, political and personal life as per ancient Hindu texts.

Ans:   Dharma – essentially means righteousness.  It is also interpreted as duty. It means that what are is expected to do in a particular situation.

Ø  Dharma is often mistaken as religion but the two are not the same. Dharma is a customary law, religion is textual.  Dharma is related to duty, religion to rituals.

Ø  Dharma pervades the whole religious – ancient literature of Hindus.  It is the core principle of Gita.  At a social level, Dharma governs the dealing of one community with another.  The notion of Dharma of a Bhahmin/Vaishya/Shudra/Kshatriya govern that mutual relationships.

Ø  At the political level, it is the supreme value to which the king  had adhere.  Kautilya placed king above Brahmins but not above Dharma.

Ø  The notion of Rajdharma is central to Indian Political Thought.  IT is the chief ideal of Gandhian conception of Ramrajya.

Ø  In personal life, Dharma is one of the four desirable aims of life.  At personal level, it governs the relationship between say a father and his son, where notions of ‘dharma of a son’ are involved.

Ø  Dharma is thus are ideal that permeates the whole of Hindu philosophy.

(b)       Do you think that human rights need to be culturally specific in order to be effective? Discuss the issue of universality of human rights and cultural relations in political theory.

Ans:   There exists a debate between the liberal and multiculturalists regarding there being a notions of human rights.

Ø  Multiculturalists like will Kymlicke and Bhikhu Parekh argue that each society has developed through its own process of development and values different sets of ideals.  They resist any imposition of liberal conception of human rights and charge them with ‘ethnocentrism’ .

Ø  Liberals say all human beings possess some basic minimum sets of rights which are ‘inalienable’.

Ø  The debate has acquired new salience with immigrants asserting themselves in the West.  West’s attempts at promoting its values abroad, often they wrong dubious means such as ‘humanitarian intervention’, ‘right to responsibility’.  Nevertheless, there  is no denying of the fact that certain minimum rights should be enjoyed by all human beings.

(c)       What is fascism?  Analyse the causes for rise and fall of fascism.

Ans:   Fascism is not treated as a political ideology in a proper sense.  It is rather manipulation of ideas, there distortion with the singular aim of coming to power.  In a fascist regime, state and leader are supreme.  Individual is subservient to the notion.  The fascist leaders adopt titles which place them above any notion of constitutional leadership.

            Fascism is based on the concept of superman/great man.  Fascism has been analysed by Hannah Arendt who is her book said, Fascism, like communism, is sustained through violence and ideology.

Rise of Fascism

Ø  Ideology adopted by middle class

Ø  The Great Depression of 1930s brought about economic crisis, loss of jobs etc.  The urge for a charismatic leadership arose who could solve all their ills.

Ø  Humiliation  inflicted on Germany after First World War through terms and conditions of Treaty of Versailles.

Fall of Fascism

Ø  World War II brought down fall of both fascist variants.

Ø  Rise in general prosperity after World War II

Ø  Institutional building, Universal Human rights, consciousness, international law, spread of democracy etc.

4          (a)       Discuss Mill’s view on liberty.  Why Mills is called a prophet of empty liberty?

Ans:   Mill – foremost thinker of liberty in Western Liberal traditions.

Ø  Mill gives an instrumental view on liberty.  Man expresses his personality through his speech, expression, through his speech, expression associations and actions, he thus needs to be given a freedom in all these respects.

Ø  Mill is a transitional liberal who makes a transition from negative freedom to positive freedom.  His views on liberty leads him to view democracy as best system of government which on the one hand leads to all world development of the individual and on other hand State will be benefited by using the abilities of best man.

Ø  Barker criticizes Mill as the prophet of empty liberty.  According to Backer Mill’s view on liberty is a negative conception of liberty, which can only be realized as absence of restraints. Barker, on the other hand called for active involvement of State in reducing the social and economic inequalities which restrict the liberty of an individual.

(b)       Explain the relationship between political science and history.  What are the limitations of historical approach to the study of political science?

Ans:    Political science attempts to study new allocation of resources occurs in a society.  David Easton, pioneer of behavioral approach wrote that it is the study of “authoritative allocation of values of a society”.

Ø  In order to understand present socio-political systems, our needs to enquire into systems previously existing.

Ø  Hegel and Marx, have used history both as an empirical and ideological tool.  Eg. Marx used history as the movement of matter which will lead to communist society in future.

Ø  History and political science share, an intimate relationship, but however, there are certain limitations of historical approach to study of political science.

Ø  Behaviouralists  criticize historical approach as giving descriptive analysis.

Ø  History may be a guide but cannot be used to predict the future.

Ø  Karl Popper charged Marx with Historicism of using history for political purpose.  Marx took what he needed to justify his ideas and overlooked other ideas.

(c)       Distinguish power from authority.  How power is related to authority and legitimacy?

Ans:   Power is often thought to be as coercive and the idea of “power over” an individual.

Ø  Marx state as an instrument in the hands of propertied class.  Liberal scholars to counter the Marxist view, gave the concept of authority to explain the nature of power possessed by liberal state.

Ø  Authority – right to exercise power, state – rightful owner of power because it had authority.

Ø  Weber gave 3 kinds of authority – traditional, charismatic, legalization

Ø  Legitimacy is consent – generated

Ø  Gramsci – State possess manufactured consent.


















6          (a)       Political and ideological impact of Russian Revolution on INM

Ans:   The Russian Revolution led to the overthrown of Czar in Russia and established a State led by Communist Party in 1917 in Russia.

Ø  MN Roy, the founding father of Communism in India was inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution and attended the second Communist International where debates were on about the role of national bourgeoisie in colonial states.

Ø  Also deeply influenced the mainstream national movement led by INC.  It was realized that national movement could no longer stand separate from popular demands.  INC thus recapture  the demands of the masses.

Ø  Also inspired Indian capitalism to take part in politics actively.

Ø  Also influenced revolutionary movement in India.  Bhagat Singh sought to create egalitarian society.

(b)       Various elements of Swaraj in Gandhi’s philosophy

Ans:   Swaraj for Gandhi meant self rule.  It was power over one’s self.

For achieving Swaraj, Gandhi believed in exercising ethical means.

Ø  Gandhi sought to build the self-rule from below.  He talked about village republics, cottage industries, were price in his vision of Swaraj.

Ø  Swaraj has 2 connotations:

i)             For individual – means restrain on demand, greed etc.

ii)            For society – means self-rule.  A rule not fanatic state but rule by people themselves.

Ø  His idea of Swaraj was thus compatible with his other ideas on Ahimsa (non-violence), Satyagrah (constant search for truth) and Sarvedya (Gandhian socialism).

(c)       Nature of participation and role of women in freedom movement of India

Ans:   Women participated in all aspects – revolutionary terrorism, non cooperation, satyagraha, leadership roles with Annie Besant Sarojini Naidu, both becoming presidents of INC.

Swadeshi Movement – 1905 – First mass movement in the announcement of Partition of Bengal that women came out in the open they were picketing liquor shops and persuading people not to but foreign cloth.  Later in the champion and Kheda Satyagraha, women participated actively in non-cooperation.

            In 1942 with most congress leadership behind the bars, Usha Mehta ran the congress radio secretly.

Annie Besant started the Home Rule Movement in 1918 to demand for dominion states.

7          (a)       Planning Commission

Ø  Non-statutory, non constitutional body for planning of India

Ø  Planning Commission have since its inception created programmes like IRDP for rural development.

Ø  For women, Planning Commission have brought changes in policy of otherwise patriarchal society of India, it stated gender budgeting.

Ø  Also created policies to provide extra funding for state level tribal sub plan, also plans for children, disabled, rural, urban development etc.

Economic Development

Ø  Created a base of strong public sector enterprises.  Also post 1991, bringing private sector in growth of India.

Ø  Many skill developmental programmes are creating productive labour in India.

Ø  Recently, its role been criticized for top-down approach of Planning.  This led to exclusion of many.

(b)       Relevance of Gandhism

Ø  Satyagraha – beyond mere ‘passive struggle.  It is speaking truth.  Instead of person, his acts are targeted.

Ø  Ahimsa – Non-violence towards human beings, animals, nature etc.

Gandhism in relevant today:

Ø  Peace - persistent need of human civilization.

Ø  Sanitation – still need of time.

Ø  Providing Urban amenities in Rural India – Gandhism emphasized on rural cottage industry and self – reliance as a way to development.

Ø  Sarva Dharma Sambhava – equality of all religions to bring substantial equality in India.  Secularism - still relevant.

5          (a)       Nehru’s legacy on Constitution of India

Ø  Nehru was modernist in his approach and was influenced by the development of west.

Ø  Later, he was also inspired by USSR & its achievements.

Ø  Hence, Nehru tried to maintain equilibrium between Liberty and Equality.

Ø  Fabian/Laskian Socialism

Ø  Secularism, modern state, Nature of Indian Federation, objective resolution of Preamble.

Ø  Preventive detention which is highly criticized is also Nehurvian legacy.

5          (b)       Two nation theory

Ø  Jinnah challenged Indian National Congress idea of India as the inclusive nation by giving “two nation theory”.

Ø  Hindu & Muslims are two compartmentalized communities forming two separate nations.

Ø  Ambedkar also supported Jinnah two nation theory.  He held that nationalism is based on the idea of fraternity which is missing in Hindu community.

Ø  After independence, India adopted secularism.  Kashmir is integration with India and other Muslims living in India challenge the two nation theory.

5          (c)       Article 32

Ø  B.R.Ambedkar called it soul of part-III

Ø  It is Article 32 which provides teeth to FRs to bite

Ø  One can directly approach to Supreme Court if any of his FRs is violated.

Ø  Supreme Court has right to issue writs namely Habeas Corpus, Mandanus, Prohibition, Ceteorari and Quo Warranto.

Ø  Under Article 32, Supreme Court is the guardian of FRs of citizens.

Ø  Under Article 32,Supreme Court has determined appropriate procedures like - PIL, Epistolary jurisdiction, doctrine of Laches & doctrine of res-juridcata.

5          (d)       Article 262

Ø  Article 262 calls upon Parliament to make laws to provide for settlement of inter-state disputes on use, distribution and control of water or river valley project.  The Parliament has powers to set up tribunals with the exclusive jurisdiction. 

Ø  However, these the arbitral awards by these tribunals have never been binding and appeals are allowed in Supreme Court.

Ø  River Boards have never come into existence ever after River Boards Act.

Ø  Tribunals have taken longer timer to give awards and the given awards are often in dispute.

Ø  Supreme Court has intervened like Yamuna River water dispute between Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.

Ø  Recently, award on Mullaperiyar dam.

5          (e)       Role of CAG

Ø  Rajendra Prasad, “Govt handles huge sum of public money.  Hence, CAG should be able to fulfill its functions without fear”.

Ø  Ambedkar considered the office more important than of judiciary.

Ø  Puts limitations on abuse of power, checks unauthorized and unconstitutional acts of government.

Ø  Ensures good practices in administration

Ø  It is a friend, philosopher and guide of Public’s Accounts Committee.

Ø  It has to ensure that tax payer’s money is used economically, efficiently and effectively.

Ø  Right from Nehruvian era there has been controversy over role of CAG. Govt. expected CAG to simply focus on Public Accounts and not to tell how Govt. can be better conducted.

Ø  UPA-II govt. also claimed CAG for overreach and policy paralysis.

Ø  Public Accounts Committee held that “role of CAG is not simply to satisfy that expenditure as per prescribed rules, CAG has to ensure wisdom, faithfulness and efficiency.

1          (a)       The end of law is not to abolish or restrain but to presence and enlarge freedom

Ø  Hobbes talks about Leviathan – the sovereign and individuals have no rights against the State.  The commands of sovereign are the laws.  Hobbes believed that man are guided by passions more than reasons.

Ø  Whereas Locke, produced a balanced picture on human nature.  Reason guides a man .  Reason in man tells him to respect the right of others.  Man understands that his freedom ends where someone else’s freedom begins.  Hence he advocates for minimal State.  He clarifies that he is not abolishing the State but limiting it for enlarging the sphere of freedom of a mass.  State can intervene if actions of one man encroach on the freedom of other man.

1.         (b)       Kautilya’s theory of State

Ø  Semi contractual State

Ø  Welfare State

Ø  Purpose is ‘Yogshem’.

Ø  Saptanga theory of State with king at the centre

Ø  Strong king can convert the weak elements of sovereignty into elements of strength.

Ø  Other elements of sovereignty like Bal,Amatya, Durga, Janpada, Kosha, Mitra are also important as he believes ‘Single wheel cannot ride the Chariot’.

Ø  Kautilya viewed State in a holistic manner and applied systematic approach.

Ø  This is organic theory of State

1          (c)        Pluralist theory of democracy

Ø  Modification of elitist theory

Ø  Suggest masses have enough scope to impact the decisions in political system.  Hence, democracies recognize Fundamental Right to from Associations.


Ø  For pluralists reality of democracy is polyarchy.

Ø  Mc Pherson criticizes for udnremining the normative aspect of democracy. He does not find much difference between elitist theory and pluralist theory.

1          (d)       Relationship between liberty and equality

Ø  Related to modern times.

Ø  There are two perspectives

i)             Liberty and equality are antithetical

Lord Acto & Alex de Tocqueville

ii)            Complementary

Ø  Laski, Rawls,T.H.Green

Ø  Classical Liberals give primary to liberty but they consider equality before law.  Attempts of social and economic equality is viewed as incompatible.

Ø  Socialists give primary to equality in social and economic sphere.  For them liberty is freedom from necessities.

Ø  Social liberals consider them to be compatible as also support positive discrimination.  They gave concept of positive liberty.

1          (e)       Marx’s theory of alienation

Ø  Marx gave this theory in “Economic & Philosophic Manuscript”.

Ø  Alienation is Marx’s understanding of freedom and criticism of liberal societies.

Ø  In capitalist societies man is not liberated but alienated.  For Marx, freedom is freedom from necessities.  In capitalism, market takes away all the freedom.  Market determines what to produce and how to produce.

Ø  For Marx, man is social and created and it is impossible to realize both in capitalism.  Alienation is faced by both capitalists and workers but workers face alienation more.  Workers face alienation from the product of his Labour, his society, and finally from himself.

Ø  Solution is only in communism and method is only revolution.

2          (c)       Examine the issue of multiculturalism in the context of universal citizenship.

Ø  Against traditional concepts of citizenship which ignores the cultural and social differences.

Ø  Will Kymlicka in his book ‘Multicultural Citizenship’ has openly advocated for granting special rights to minorities like Special Representation Rights – Reservation in Assemblies, Self Governance Rights – 6th Schedule in Indian Constitution and Special Cultural Protection.

Ø  Feminists also support the theory but in universal context.

Ø  Susan Moller Okin in her book ‘Multiculturalism that for women’ has suggested to have some minimum universal norms because most of the societies have such cultural traditions which are exploitative for women.

Ø  Bhikhu Parekh in his book ‘Rethinking Multiculturalism’ suggests to retain liberal values of human dignity along with the toleration for different cultural traditions.

Ø  Hence universal citizenship implies the concept of treating all citizens equally irrespective of caste, gender, on the basis of universal Adult Franchiese.

7          (b)       Is political development a cause or consequence of economic development?  Give arguments in support of your answer.

Ø  Lucian Pye has given the concept of political development which helps understanding the nature of State in 3rd World countries and in measurement of political development.

Ø  Both are cause and both are consequences.

Ø  For Marx, economy  drives policy.

Ø  There are regions with economically strong but politically weak.  Thailand being a ‘tiger economy’ has been facing political turmoil since a decade.

Ø  Areas like Middle East, full of resources are facing both  political crisis & developmental deficit.

Ø  In Indian context, policy has driven Economy.   Indian economy has State Economy till 1990s. Because of political developments, dalits have got voice, economy has risen.

8          (a)       Is there a national policy for empowerment of Women?  If yes, what are the salient features of this policy?

            Please refer National Policy for Empowerment of Women 2011 in Ministry of Women and Child Development.

8          (b)       State reorganization as an exercise needs to pursue from a holistic perspective. Suggest a new analytical framework for state reorganization in India.

Ø  India’s internal territorial map is yet not fixed. There are numerous demands of states like Gorkhaland, Bodoland, Vidarbha etc.

Ø  Reasons for demand of new States are –

i)             Identity

ii)            Development

iii)           Good governance

iv)           Weakening of democracy in the country

v)            Increasing aspiration of people for political participation

vi)           Some scholars have linked the demand of new states to ‘caste ‘ politics as after 1st SRC – new States have created ‘dominant caste’ in every state.

8          (c)        Discuss the changes in Indian party system since 1990s.

Ø  To be discussed in three phases

Ø  Phase I (till 1999) – The onset of coalition politics & minority govt. but polarized conditions.  Highly fragmented party system, unstable coalitions

Ø  Phase II (1999-2014) – considered as phase of stable coalitions giving appearance of maturity of coalition politics.  Both conditions under NDA and UPA-I showed healthy coalitions. UPA-II govt. again put number of questions on coalition politics.

Ø  Phase – III (2014 elections) – The present govt. is also a coalition govt. but single party has alone got the clear majority since 1989.  There are talks of end of coalition politics but this is premature to say as per the scholars researching on electoral behaviour.